I have always heard of IT as an abstract concept, something that I believed was reserved for people who had extensive knowledge of computers or circuit boards. Through learning about ICT in the development context, I realized that it is so much broader and more relevant than what I had originally believed. I now am under the impression that ICT4D is one of the most important concepts in developing countries as it can tackle problems in every sector. The ability of ICTs to connect people is especially important as it allows for a greater network of learning and understanding between countries and between people. Especially important as well is the idea of e-governance, as it has the potential to increase transparency, reduce corruption and increase dialogue between citizens and government.
One of the most salient take aways in looking at case studies especially, in addition to reading the Human Centered Design (HCD) framework is the fact that citizen and local input is one of the most important aspect to the successful conjunction of ICTs and populations in the developing world. In looking at what worked throughout the semester, such as farm radio and the cell phone use by fisherman in India, it is clear that it must come in part from pre-existing infrastructure and what is already easily accessible to the people. Farm Radio International was effective because of the prevalence of radios in the areas, which they utilized to their advantage.
I believe that instead of throwing ICTs at the people, there must be at least a dialogue to understand how to best use pre-existing infrastructure to their advantage, in addition to creating dialogues to understand what they need most. As opposed to project implementation such as One Laptop Per Child (OLPC), I think a lesson learnt is that to use ICT4D effectively, it must be implemented using design strategies that consider pre-existing conditions. Merely giving people ICTs and then backing off may be one of the greatest flaws in projects. Using local knowledge could be of the greatest asset. If rural areas hardly have electricity connectivity, how can we attempt to implement Internet? I believe patience may be a virtue, and teaching people how to use the tools they already have access to instead of introducing entirely knew and foreign technology is what ICT4D project should be about.
In March of this year, a cyber attack wiped out many banks and broadcasters in South Korea. Specifically concerning about this attack was the fact that many members of the Shinhan banking network were targeted using what is known as spear phishing. Spear phishing requires prior knowledge about a specific person or group of people to be targeted and hackers send phishing e-mails to these specific people. The look-alike pages used in phishing and spear phishing can be especially worrisome due to the fact that people put their trust in a company and may blindly follow commands upon asked to change their password or something of the like.
This cyber attack was well-planned according to researchers in that hackers gained access to the organization’s computers eight months prior, monitoring the activities inside the server. Finally, malware was distributed to computers, wiping out much of the data.
These attacks are of an extremely serious nature. They allow for high return for the hacker with little traceability or chance for getting caught. The introduction of AttackKits allows for less knowledgeable hackers to conduct attacks on larger scales than otherwise possible.
Spear phishing to large organizations, or even vulnerable populations, can on any scale have detrimental effects. The freedom of the internet and the anonymity behind it has spiraled into a world of its own, allowing large amounts of data to be stolen or wiped out without even having to leave the house. This begs the question on how to protect against cyber attacks. Nation-wide implementation of cyber security should be a main priority, as cyber attacks could potentially wipe out essential information and infrastructure, leaving it at a standstill and having to start from ground zero. Policies must begin to be more stringent in this manner.
Read the article about South Korea here and here.
Jorge Zapico describes himself as “a researcher looking at the intersection of information technology and sustainability” and has an extremely large database of information pertaining to ICTs in all aspects of the field. His recent article “ICT and Environmental Sustainability: Friend or Foe?” pertains directly to the issue of the utilization of different sectors in conjunction with ICTs. In many of his articles, Zapico works to get the ball rolling on certain ICT issues, in addition to the attempt to facilitate further research.
Zapico also pioneered the “Green Hackathon” who’s mission is to get developers together to use computers and technology for the greater good in making it more sustainable and more efficiently utilized. These “coding events” have taken place in many different countries around the world, in hopes of getting more and more people involved on an international scale.
He as also worked on projects like Green Analytics, which helps represent data on things like carbon footprints in an understandable manner, in addition to generating life-cycle assessments to allow people to understand how to reduce their carbon footprint.
His article on industrial ecology is especially pertinent to the Energy and Environment ICT sector. Using metrics, the measuring and accounting of data, he explains, can allow for better use of resources in industries using a myriad of ICTs to allow for a greater scale of dematerialization and optimization.
Check out his website and Twitter page.
InfoDev, a company that promotes technology in developing countries, has created comprehensive knowledge maps relating to ICT in education. The maps construct a resource base of knowledge gaps in ICT use in developing countries in the domain of education. It allows for stakeholders and policy makers to see areas of focus and where improvements must be made.
The themes—impact, costs, current implementation of ICT in education, and planning—are a product of key findings identified before the compilation of the project. InfoDev attempts to narrow down the broad nature of ICT research by highlighting vital conclusions of the nature of ICT In education. Under each category, some key findings are as follows:
- Disassociations between rationale for the use of ICTs in education and their actual implementation
- Lack of standardized methods for ICT use
- Little data or guides presently exist
CURRENT ICT USE IN EDUCATION
- ICTs are popular in education in developing countries, despite the difficulties they may face
- Practices and lessons are not easily accessible as of now
- The argument is being made that ICT use in education is a good motivation tool for students
Due to the nature of the inclusive report, which emphasizes the issues and priorities of developing countries and of stakeholders and policy makers, organizations and governments can begin to make changes that address these needs to make ICT implementation more effective and useful in the classroom.
National ICT Plan/Strategy:
Senegal ICT Sector Performance Review – 2009/2010, Research ICT Africa: English Version
Senegal ICT Sector Performance Review: French– 2009/2010: French Version
Guide to ICT Policy in IST-Africa Partner Countries – April 2012, IST-Africa: English
Plan for the promotion of ICT use, July 2012 – Senegalese Government: French
IMF Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper 2010– Country Report written by the International Monetary Fund including a section about ICTs as a form of poverty reduction, 2010: English
Measuring the Information Society- International Telecommunication Union, 2012: English
Global Information Technology Report – World Economic Forum, 2012: English
UNDP Harnessing the Power and Potential of Information and Communication Technologies for Local Development– Handbook for Policy Makers written by the United Nations Development Programme: Geneva Representation Office, 2012- Gives a helpful ICT Profile breakdown for Senegal: English
Breakdown of World Bank Statistics for Senegal– Trading Economics highlights World Bank Indicators for Communications in Senegal, 2012: English
For Senegal, I found it slightly difficult to find actual documents coming from the government, as opposed to external sources writing about government decisions and policy.
In the report “Gender Assessment of ICT Usage and Access in Africa,” I found the gender disparities especially in Radio & TV to be especially surprising. Radio is the main source of information for low income and rural households, although the price of constantly having to buy batteries hinders the upkeep of these radios. The fact of being a woman reduces the probability of listening to the radio and increases the probability of watching TV. Women watch TV more constantly then men, usually occurring in groups and watching entertainment shows. In the report, stories of widowed women who no longer have the means to buy batteries and have the responsibility of supporting their children does not allow for radio usage to fit into their lifestyles. Similarly to women in America, watching TV becomes an enjoyable social event, allowing for relaxation greater than that of listening to the radio. Tied to many cultural norms, women may be subject to scrutiny if seen watching TV and engaging in leisure activities.
This marginalization of women is concerning to the advancement of ICTs in that their inclusion is essential to meeting the MDGs and the advancement of their opportunities. In the following video, the author of the “African Women and ICT, Investigating Technology, Gender and Empowerment” book highlights the need for politicians to make sure women become a part of the ICT revolution.
While women have already been introduced to different technologies like TV, it is essential to development to get politician and communities behind them in their endeavors to create a network between themselves and within the society. Is it possible to try to change lasting societal norms? How can we cope with the marginalization of women in developing countries?
In “Connecting the First Mile” by Surmaya Talyarkhan, the author explores possible frameworks for the implementation of successful ICT-related development projects. Listed as one Talyarkhan’s sources is the “12 Habits of Highly Effective ICT-Enabled Development Initiatives” by bridges.org. These twelve habits highlight the best practice guidelines for ICT project management that are used both for planning and for post-project evaluation. One of the twelve habits, as also highlighted by Talyarkhan, is the push toward “making it local.”
As also seen in the green movement toward eating locally, the idea reinforces local actors seeking solutions. Rather than having outsiders who have a hard time getting the buy-ins from local communities, localization allows to get a greater sense of context-specific approaches based on the greatest needs of the community. Additionally, the presence of a “local champion” that is trusted by the community can further drive the sustainable process and communicate through his/her connections the best way to implement and utilize the initiative. This “champion” is one who may bring in local support as well as contacting outside groups for further resources.
It seems from a development project standpoint that localization is one of the most important aspects for successful implementation and sustainability. Outside actors are extremely beneficial, yet if the local communities do not understand fully how to utilize the technology, the project may only last as long as the actors are present. By using the local “champion,” it is easier to ensure a lasting impact when the knowledge-base of this person is a constant presence. Rather than skepticism of an outsider, a trusted member of the community may be better received. I think outside actors are certainly necessary and essential to the implementation of ICTs, yet reinforces local actors could lead down a longer path of sustainability. Should outside actors be responsible for recruiting the local actors, or must they come up organically through the development framework? Read all twelve habits here.
In the article “Africa: Using ICTs for transformational development,” from the World Bank’s blog related to ICT, the author Tim Kelly highlights feasible ICT solutions in both the public and the private spheres. Kelly cites Kenya as an example of governmental intervention in ICT during which there is expected to be more
“open government, capacity building, and innovation” to reach the country’s ICT-related goals by 2017. As highlighted in Unwin’s chapter on policies and partnerships, a lack of transparency and a poor regulatory environment has often hindered the development of the ICT sector. Kelly explains that the goal of the “eTransform Africa” report argues that new technologies are essential for business entrepreneurship and economic growth. He also accents the ability of innovations to create job and increase domestic companies export potential.
The “eTransform Africa” full report correlates with Unwin’s ideas of using multi-stakeholder approaches for the advancement of technology. Unwin explains that these partnerships are essential for the creation of ICT4D initiatives (Unwin 159), which the “eTransform Africa” report supports, stating that these stakeholders are essential for funding initial programs and start ups. The importance of openness of data and transparency of information is accentuated in the report, supporting different data sets including geographical information systems (GIS). Both Unwin and Kelly stress the importance of the inclusion of civil society in this process. What is the best way to create these partnerships or is it better to allow them to form organically? How do we further diversify them to allow ICT implementation to be as effective as possible?
In a 2012 study of Jigawa, a poor state in the Northern part of Nigeria, the University of Portsmouth-based authors highlights the state government’s work on eGovernment as a strategy toward the advancement of ICT and economic development. The Nigerian government has been investing large amounts of their budget to advance their technological sector, and Jigawa is now seen as the “pacesetter” of eGovernment in Nigeria. As we discussed in class and have read in the Unwin readings, ICT promotes opportunities for development in the political, economic as well as socio-cultural sectors. The Nigerian government has begun to pave the way for ICT advancements by deregulating and privatizing the sector.
The Jigawa State government has created the targets of developing an average of 500 ICT professionals from 2010 to 2012 through local and overseas training, as well as the achievement of computerization of certain government operations such as payroll and financial management. We spoke in class about the digital divide between developing and developed countries, and one of the major goals of the Jigawa government is to bridge the digital divide between citizens with access and those without. While the Jigawa government has succeeded in reducing overhead costs with the eGovernment program and the establishment of over 30 computer-training centers, Nigeria is still “fighting to crawl… in the ICT race” (Kanya 7). Are there ways to speed up the advancement of the ICT sector, or is the digital divide between citizens and between countries something that will be nearly impossible to bridge? Read the full case study here.