China is not a country that has explicitly laid out its plans for information and communications technologies development, but they have published a few documents that outline some of the ways they plan to improve these areas of development. The closest document they have to a ICT4D policy is called, “China’s Informatization Strategy and its Impact on Trade in ICT Goods and ICT services”, was published by the General Office of the CPC Central Committee and General Office of the State Council of China in 2006. China’s 5 year plans published by the National People’s Congress, most recently published in 2010, also contain some information related to ICTs.
China’s Informatization Strategy
China’s 12th 5-Year Plan can be found by searching for it, but is only available in downloadable .pdf files
Other Agency and Organization Publications:
Rural Informatization in China can be downloaded from the World Bank. This is a working paper, so new versions are published when major changes need to be made.
IDC’s Top 10 Predictions for China’s ICT Market in 2014 and Beyond is a press release from a data analysis company highlights some of the more important indicators and what they might mean for the future.
Remember that the Chinese government is not keen on publishing documents that are clear in their intentions or expectations. So, market trends, data indicators, and other sources of information are the best way to understand China’s relationship with ICT4D’s.
Last week, our presentations on ICT technologies and their applications in different ICT sectors educated us about the challenges that developing countries face when implementing these projects. We also learned how access to information is critical to all aspects of ICT4D and its’ different offshoots. We completely changed gears with the guest speaker on Tuesday but we still discussed how important this access to information is. Cyber security and cyber warfare have emerged in the last decade as innovations in technology continue to advance rapidly. In the world of cyber warfare, hacking and cyber espionage have become extremely common. In the CIA and NSA, the United States has hundreds, if not thousands, of workers devoted to keeping tabs on cyber terrorists and their organizations and preventing them from attacking us as well as ensuring that our data is secure.
But the questions about how secure is our data have come up numerous times over the last few years, as cyber espionage from China have emerged and individuals like such as Julian Assange and Edward Snowden have leaked U.S. military and government data. If one of the most powerful countries on earth’s private information and data is susceptible to two individuals, how secure is the technology we use in our own homes on a daily basis? We have talked all year about how mobile phones, especially smartphones, are a critical tool in international development and ICT technologies. But I learned from this CNN article that as smartphones, which have more than 100 times the computing power than the average satellite, provide more hope for ICT4D and digital communication they also make us more vulnerable to cyber attacks.
This is concerning because emails have become less and less secure in recent times, forcing people to rely heavily on their smartphones. And in developing and emerging markets, such as China, this is an even bigger problem because smartphone users download apps from third party sites because Google Play is banned. Many of the apps on these third party sites contain AndroRAT, a new software developed by hackers that makes it very easy to inject malicious code into a fake version of an app. Smartphones will continue to be a popular destination for hackers and as this technology becomes increasingly ubiquitous in the developing and developed worlds, we will need to find ways to secure mobile phone data and information.
In class on Thursday, our guest speaker Ralph Russo gave an informative, engaging, (and a little bit terrifying) presentation about cyber security. It brought up a lot of questions about the internet, regulations, cyber terrorism, and cyber security. With legislation being drafted to try to increase the government’s ability to monitor information on the web, many people are becoming increasingly interested in this topic.
One thing Ralph Russo mentioned was that there was no way to regulate the internet. Which makes sense – with all the users and information out there, how could it even be possible? However, it seems that China is – or trying to – regulate and monitor all internet use.
Under strict censorship and other laws that control the media, China tries to protect the information that goes in and out of the country, as well as keep a hold on their regime. For example, China logs every IP address to your personal information – Chinese and foreigners alike. In the Beijing airport, I was required to scan my passport and register my IP address in order to access the free WiFi. Apparently, some websites are restricted for viewing and some websites even redirect to the Chinese government websites (a tactic that Iran is now using). A new agency was just formed to further regulate and enforce internet censorship.
This seems to contrast what Ralph Russo was saying. What is correct? Is China actually able to monitor and regulate the internet like they say? Or is it simply a dream and a large effort that cannot be reached?
Sources: 1, 2, 3
Our guest speaker Ralph Russo, professor at Tulane University in the Homeland Security Program, discussed all things Cyber Security with us today. He mentioned the concept of malware or malevolent software that essentially allows hackers to gain access to information, disrupt a computer’s operation or perform whatever actions the hacker desires. One of the main issues he brought up is the United States’ concern about malware being on U.S. devices bought from China. I decided to look into this a little bit more and found the following article.
The article outlines a “new provision of the government’s latest spending law requires three federal agencies — NASA and the departments of Justice and Commerce — to buy gear only after performing a cyber-security risk assessment carried out in consultation with law-enforcement agencies”. This is because the government is worried about its important agencies and the threat of cyber attacks to them. There are many U.S. suspicions against China’s participation in cyber attacks on the U.S. Particularly because a U.S. research firm claimed “to have traced numerous cyber attacks to a specific unit of China’s People’s Liberation Army, one operating within a particular building in Shanghai.”
The threat of cyber attacks is growing therefore cyber security is an extremely relevant topic in today’s world. However, fortunately this is not an unknown threat to our government and cyber security measures are starting to be implemented as the newest law exemplifies.
The development of the ICT industry is centered on constructing ways for individuals and societies to communicate with one another and the different ways in which they experience space and time. Although the implements of modern technology such as cellphones, computers and the internet have increased the speed at which we communicate, rapid communication over large distances and regions is by no means a new concept. This notion was presented to me by Tim Unwin in, “ICT4D: Information and Communication Technologies for Development” and intrigued me. Before reading this I had never given any thought to how individuals and societies communicated over considerable distances and so I am going to briefly explore two traditional ICTs: yodeling in the Swiss Alps and signal fires along the Great Wall of China.
When examining yodeling and fire signals as ICTs it is interesting to look at how both forms of communication worked as ways to relay information of vast distances. During the Ming Dynasty, from 1368-1644, guards on the Great Wall of China employed the use of fire signals, as an efficient was to communicate. Fire signals could send a message swiftly across the entire 6,700-kilometer long wall. These signals included different sets of patterns that signified enemies, allies and the number of people approaching.
The same complex system of communication is also seen in the communicative mode of yodeling. According to an article on wisegeek.com the first official record of yodeling in the Swiss Alps is from 1545 and most experts agree that it was used as a way for herders, their stock and Alpine villages to communicate with one another. This mode of communication has since then become incorporated into the traditional music of the region.
These two forms of ICTs originated long before phones, broadband, or even electricity and I feel that is important to remember that people have always had the need and resources to communicate with one another. Exploring these two forms of historical communication within the confines of ICTs I am interested in learning more about how they adapt the defenition of ICTs and how new technologies have expedited the communication process.
The official ICT national policy of China is listed as the ‘State Informatization Plan’. Informatization isn’t a phrase that’s used very frequently, so make sure it doesn’t auto-correct to ‘information’ or ‘informational’ if you are searching for information. Other useful things to search for include the 5-year plans, which usually include goals related to technology & development.
1) National Policy Overview – It’s unclear whether the entirety of the policy itself is available in English or not. However, these are two power points that I think provided a good overview of the policy itself.
2) World Bank Reports and Resources– This should probably be the first place you go. It’s an all around great resource for any country, so I’d recommend starting with the ICT home page and searching ‘China’ (or any other country) plus other key words for relevant information. You can also visit Worldbank.org/chinaict to view chapters of a book related to China’s national strategy. Here are some resources within the World Bank that I recommend:
3) Industry Overview – Two excellent reports on the state of the the ICT industry & market in China.
4) Data – Trading Economics has a good master list of ‘communication’ indicators in China. Additional indicators are available on the World Bank website.