Tag Archives: failure

Lessons learned

The most important lessons we learned this semester were about failure. Too often in IDEV classes, we get caught up in success, but learning about failure is most important because it allows us the opportunity to learn. Successful ICT projects require thinking about things from many angles. Giving laptops to children is useless, for example, unless the children also know how to use them, repair services are available, and internet and power infrastructure exists. The overall most important lesson I take away from this class is flexibility. We’ve seen many examples of how projects fail, but the ones that are successful are the ones that are flexible.

In any development project (and most things in life), flexibility is the most important attribute to have. We live in a rapidly changing world. Even in my lifetime, technology has progressed in unimaginable ways.  To be successful in this world we need to be willing to adapt and we need to know how to learn quickly. Because of this class, I have begun thinking about technology in my everyday life from how something works to how it can be used to change the world.

Flexibility is the most useful theoretical framework to teach in this class, but it is difficult to teach in a theoretical way. I’ve learned most by reading about different projects and learning from our guest speakers who brought real world knowledge with them to our class. I’ve enjoyed this class. I have learned to think as a more technologically competent person. This attribute will help me in any career, development or otherwise.

ICT4D Course Lessons

I think the most important lesson I took from this class is that understanding the local context is critical for the success of ICT4D initiatives. “One size fits all” initiatives will not help anyone, and they will probably fail. However, it happens too often that well-meaning individuals or organizations don’t consider local contexts and challenges. We saw this in the case of One Laptop Per Child.

There are a few different things to keep in mind when considering the local context. One is local language. Many people living in remote areas do not speak the “national language,” which is typically the colonial language. In many countries, there are few people beyond educated urban dwellers that speak the language of the government. Therefore, it is essential that initiatives use local languages. Related to this is local content. Initiatives should focus on giving people information that they need. An example of this would be an initiative aimed at fishermen that gives information on tides, currents, and any impending bad weather. Finally, it is important to remember local capacity. Many rural areas don’t have sufficient resources to support computer-based initiatives, or the electricity to keep phones charged. It is important, then, to work with pre-existing technology and resources. Keeping these things in mind will reduce the probability of failure.

Can you Define Failure?

The vast majority is very quick to criticize ICT4D projects and highlight statistics such as the World Bank statistic that states that about 70% of ICT projects fail, without even understanding the context of these numbers. In this case, how does the World Bank define failure? What constitutes a project as a failure? Some projects may be black and white with a clear boundary between success and failure; however, most projects lack this definitive boundary. For example, the Zambian Interactive Radio Instruction (IRI) program, known as Learning at the Taonga Market (LTM) was launched in 2000 to create low cost, high quality education for educationally and geographically marginalized areas in Zambia. The LTM integrates IRI, which acts as an active teaching tool, and the Lifeline radio, which is a dual-powered device that uses both wind-up and solar technology minimizing the dependency on other energy sources to teach lessons written and recorded by the Educational Broadcasting Services in conjunction with the Education Development Center. This program was designed to use existing technology, such as the radio, to provide high-quality education for over 800,000 children who cannot attend school. Since its implementation, over 160,000 children have received education through the LTM and these children have tested better than the children attending mainstream schools.

While this program appears to be working, some people argue it is another failed ICT project. Even though the demand for the LTM program and the enrolment of G1 participants have steadily increased, the retention rate is uncomfortably low as only 2,916 of the total 7,782 learners completed G5. Additionally, when testing the participants’ literacy and numeracy skills, it was apparent that the children had gained knowledge. However, the mean numeracy score dropped from 71.5% in 2001 to 63% in 2003 and the literacy skills dropped from 56.6% in 2001 to 48.8% in 2003. Even though observers noticed an improvement in literacy and numeracy skills, the tests proved otherwise. Does this mean that the project failed?

The lowered retention rate could be due to a lack of monitoring and evaluation; some people could be counted as “drop outs” even if they just switched IRI centers. Additionally, the discrepancies in the numeracy and literacy tests could be due to the different sample sizes tested in 2001 and 2003. Therefore, is it accurate to consider this project a failure on the basis of somewhat skewed data? And even if the data were accurate, should this project be classified as a failure based on two statistics, even when vast improvements and increases in demand have been noted? All these questions cannot be answered unless we define failure.  

Admitting Failure: The Key to Success?

On Tuesday, we talked a lot about why ICT4D projects fail. We even attempted to watch a YouTube video that detailed the main reasons why ICT4D projects fail but the video failed to load. Hopefully that was just a coincidence.

Failure is not a new thing and it certainly won’t go away anytime soon. But all this talk of failure made me think about what these innovators and social entrepreneurs are doing to combat ICT4D projects that fail. What are they doing to overcome them and how is this impacting development? We are often measured in life in our ability to succeed and overcome failures and the ICT sector is no different. ICT4D projects and the innovators that spearhead these ideas are ambitious and risk takers so it is only natural that failure will come for some if not all. What donors and outsiders looking in need to know about failure in ICT4D projects is that these ventures will not give an immediate return on private investment. But sometimes these development projects are not given the chance to succeed and as a result the social entrepreneurs are forced to omit aspects of their idea and they are not allowed to be as wild and as innovative as they need to be.

I came across the organization Global Fund, a non-profit organization that utilizes a “21st century approach” to combat AIDS, TB and Malaria. The organization has grown immensely since its inception in 2002, currently providing ARV therapy to 6.1 million HIV positive people, they have treated over 11.2 million people with TB and distributed over 360 million insecticide-treated nets. But the organization has not always been a success. In 2011, Global Fund announced that it had mismanaged grant monies and donor funds leading to some countries retracting their support for the organization. But this negative turned to a positive because of the transparency of the organization and their decision to admit the failure. This honesty led to renewed support for the organization as it showed they were willing to admit failure and work to address the problem. Thus, this admission of guilt allow Global Fund to continue to be innovative as support for them increased, which is a win-win for everyone because the social world needs more programs like this to reach their full potential and make a difference in health and medicine.

Lastly, I came across a great site to read individual stories about development failure. The site is a great resource to help us (international development students or people interested in creating development projects) understand why failure is important and what we can learn from others to overcome that failure and succeed: http://www.admittingfailure.com/.

Preventing ICT Project Failure: Australia to Ghana

A recent topic of discussion amongst my classmates has been the failure of ICT4D projects and some of the reasons they typically fail. This video, from the ICT4D Poverty Reduction Summit in Winneba, Ghana, attributes failure to 7 major reasons.

It’s nearly impossible to disagree with the insight provided by these ICT professionals. However, a trend I’ve noticed is that many of the reasons we come up with are directed at the receiving end. For instance, we can attribute a project’s failure in Ghana to the lack of appropriate infrastructure in Ghana or the extensive costs of maintaining technology in Ghana. We don’t often analyze the failures on the giving end and, when we do, we’re mostly talking about flaws in perception or understanding. What if part of the problem is administration? What if there are technical issues on the giving end as well?

In a recent article from the IT section of one of Australia’s leading publications, Trevor Clarke discusses IT project failures and a new government standard for them. Clarke points out that over the years, IT market observers have been disappointed by the number of IT projects that have either failed completely or exceeded their budgets and/or deadlines. The new government standard is an attempt to increase efficiency and prevent failure on these projects. Of course, this refers only to domestically developed and implicated projects within Australia, but it just goes to show that when it comes to IT or ICT projects, failure does not discriminate. If ICT projects within a well-developed, first-world country often fail, we mustn’t be discouraged when the same happens in the third world.

However, that’s not to say there is no hope. With new initiatives like Australia’s new ICT governance standard, we can imitate their processes and procedures when we’re working in the developing world. Perhaps ICT4D professionals should attempt to develop a similar standard for their projects in places like Sub Saharan Africa or Latin America. Now, “if it worked there, it will work here” is not necessarily the type of philosophy development professionals should follow, but having some guidelines and sound advice won’t hurt. I think Australia’s ICT failures and imminent successes could help ICT4D professionals to learn from example.

Final Thoughts

This week our class had Wayan Vota, the Senior Manager at Development Gateway, skype into class and answer some of our questions. One of the major themes we have seen throughout this semester has been failing projects. Mr. Vota told us that he is currently hosting a fail festival, where the main topic of discussion is projects that failed and why they seem to fail.  Their is currently about 500 people planning on attending this conference in Washington DC. This concept of having a festival where people only discuss their failures is really interesting to me. Typically, it is really hard for people to discuss their failures. In the field of ICT4D, I truly believe that discussing failures is crucial. This way people can learn from other people and can incorporate what actually works into their own projects. Failure is part of the process and can be part of possible future solutions.

The fact the projects fail in ICT4D world is something that I will take away from this course. As a senior IDEV major who is graduating in may, people expect you have some big, earth shattering idea that you will pursue after you graduate and will help the lives of those in the developing world. You never think that this idea will fail but in reality, majority of projects do and it is okay to fail. What isn’t okay is to not learn from your failures. I believe that this is what Mr. Vota is trying to do with the fail festival, making sure the same type of failures don’t happen over and over again.

A second thing I will take away from his class is the fact that technology really does have the potential to help develop all sectors of societies.  In today’s world the countries that are the most developed also happen to be the most technology advanced. Because technology plays such a large part in today’s modern world, developing countries need to also become technological developed in order to be considered “promising” and no longer in the “developing” category.

Reflecting on ICT4D

To start, ICT4D has the potential to have great outcomes. It can help reduce poverty, empower women and other marginalized groups, create more transparency in business and governance, improve health care systems, create a more sustainable future relating to the environment, and improve the risk in disasters and emergencies. There is no doubt that technology can help in these areas when applied correctly. Therefore, I think the first greatest lesson is to better monitor and evaluate existing ICT4D programs. There are several different frameworks that exist and ideas that different organizations use when creating their plans or programs, and tons of different ICT4D projects and initiatives. The problem is that there has been little monitoring and evaluation after those programs have been implemented. Without looking at the true successes and failures of these existing projects, we can’t know what’s the best way to use technology in a sustainable way in the developing world.

I was particularly intrigued by “Oscar Night Syndrome” – the idea that in the development field, there is always a need to look good and highlight the successful parts of the given project. No organization wants to publish bad results, so there is much less emphasis on the negative aspects of a given project. Therefore, it’s extremely important to analyze ICT4D failures. As discussed in class, the website FAILFARE reports on the failures of ICT4D projects, and looks at why certain things don’t work in development. The hope is to then have a better understanding and more information to create better and more sustainable development projects in the future. I think it’s crucial for sites or organizations like FAILFARE to expand and continue to publish information on ICT4D failures.

I also think the idea of “local knowledge” is essential in ICT4D. There is no “one-size fits all” approach. As we’ve seen in class, every city, region, country, and continent has a different set  of rules and frameworks that must be abided by. Some areas may have low literacy rates rates, others may have a government unwilling to adapt to new technologies, and others may have next to no electricity. These are all very different problems that inhibit the use of ICTs. Therefore, while many projects are able to abide by a theoretical framework, no two projects can be exactly the same. This is where local knowledge comes in. All of the theoretical frameworks and successful projects we have looked at have touched upon the importance of local knowledge in their projects – local knowledge of the government and laws, of the viability of various technologies, an understanding of culture etc. Without expanding upon knowledge, development projects will not be able to use their full potential in achieving their best results. I think the Human Centered Design framework we learned about in class most closely adheres to this idea, and is the most useful framework moving forward with development projects. It allows for local knowledge, a true understanding of the population and what technologies they need, want, and can use, and allows for a unique project according to those ideas.

Naturally, taking this course has really opened my eyes to the importance of technology, both in the developed and the developing world. The topics we discussed at the end of the course – like the use of social media – were of particular interest to me. I’ve always been a pretty avid Twitter user / Instagram-er etc. but it was especially interesting to see what I saw as “social” or “fun” technologies being used for more important purposes. As we read and discussed, Twitter was vital to the Arab Spring, and helped spread ideas about democracy and human rights across the globe. Monitoring social media after the Boston Massacre and various school shootings  was also of great interest to me – and I learned a lot about the benefits and pitfalls of social media. Similarly, Ralph Russo’s guest lecture on cyber-security was of particular interest to me, and is obviously a very important topic to study given the current threat of cyber-security. As a political science major (in addition to international development), I think it’s really important to understand the importance of technology and social media in the world, and the role of governance in these phenomenons. Technological innovation is clearly of growing prominence and is changing our daily and social lives, as well as our political lives, so I’m grateful to have had the exposure to the topics discussed in our class for that reason. I am now much more comfortable with Twitter and WordPress, and understand more so the full potential of Twitter, other social media sites, and more generally to blogs. I think moving forward this comfort and knowledge of technology will greatly benefit my skill-set and make me more marketable to future employers.

Lessons From ICT4D

I feel that the most salient lessons to be learned in ICT4D is that failure can be a learning curve and that not every society is ready or able to use ICTs in conjunction with a program’s goal. For example when implementing an app for farmers to find where to get the best market prices we, in the US, would think that’s a great idea but when its take not the field it doesn’t work. That is because those farmers have cell phones but not smart phones so they have no way to access the app. Failure is a great way to learn how to do things better the next time and I think that the unit we did on assessing the success of a project was very helpful in making the failure of a project a way to help others attempting to introduce ICT4D project. I also found the research that I did for my sector project to be very salient.

In terms of specific things that I have learned I have found the importance of research and the role of security are two things that I will specifically take away. First, on the topic of research, I learned that there are often large upfront costs related to implementing ICT4D projects. Because of these costs we spoke a lot about the importance of implementing in depth research in order to assess a community’s needs. The research aspect is also incredibly important in terms of providing the correct technologies. For example when looking to start a text message campaign in order to educate new and expecting mothers it is important to assess the literacy levels and then address how to reach those women who are illiterate. The second thing that I specifically learned was the importance security. From my research on the business and industry sector I learned about the importance of cyber security and that it’s essential to attracting foreign investment as well as facilitate international networks and transactions.

This class was very informative and I think that the lessons I spoke of above as well as the theoretical concepts of capacity building and the idea of the first mile are specific ideas that I will be able to implement ICT4D. I will be able to use these and assess other countries’ needs and look at how their national policies about ICTs can be better implemented or changed to better meet the needs of the country.

The Importance of Monitoring, Evaluation and Admitting Failure

During our discussion with Wayan Vota on Thursday he mentioned an article titled “10 Worst Practice in Education” in the webpage ICTworks. This article details 10 common practices that are detrimental to ICT projects when working with education as explained by Michael Trucano.

Personally, I found number 5, the lack of monitoring and evaluation in projects, the most obvious and was shocked to find out that many projects do not try to measure their impact in an accurate manner. As Mr. Trucano explain:

“This should be self-evident…If we don’t evaluate potential answers to this question, rigorously and credibly, all we are left with is well-intentioned guesswork and marketing dross.”


Seeing this practice listed reminded me of a TED talk which although originally meant for NGOs definitely applies to any type of organization trying to implement an ICT project. In his talk “What Happens When an NGO Admits Failure” David Damberger talks about his experience working for Engineers Without Borders and how their projects became exponentially more effective after they started posting an annual monitoring and evaluation report of their failed projects called the “Failure Report”.

Demberger argues that only by publicly admitting the flaws in projects, and “embracing” them as he states, can they be overcome and creates an example for other organizations to follow preventing them from committing the same mistakes. This is especially true to ICT projects, which seem to fail often for the same mistakes as previous projects. Perhaps if more organizations were willing to publicly admit their failures future ICT projects would be better implemented and resources would be better employed.

Oscar Night Syndrome and FAILFaire

One of the biggest problems in the international development field is a lack of data after development projects. We don’t really know if existing projects were truly successful, or if they failed at achieving their objectives. This is partly due to the difficulty in monitoring and evaluation, but also partly due to the fact that no organization wants to publish poor results. The latter of these ideas is referred to as “Oscar Night Syndrome”, meaning that there is always a need to “look good” in the development field.

Specifically relating to ICT4D, one article writes, “No one ever fails in ICT4D. Isn’t that amazing! Technologies come and go quickly – bye, bye PDA’s, Windows Vista, and soon Nokia – yet in ICT4D, each project has impact and we never fail. We just have lessons learned. In fact, can you name a single technology program that has publicly stated that it failed?”. The article proposes 4 areas where Monitoring and Evaluation can be improved in the ICT4D field.

1) Quasi-Experiments

Quasi-experiments have a leg up on ‘randomized control trials’ as they are more realistic and ethical. Projects must be tracked over a longer period of time in order to most accurately measure whether or not the projects are successful.

2) Qualitative Analysis

This requires more results than simply numbers, meaning in person interviews, focus groups, observations etc. This can better guide future project design.

3) Common Standards

There needs to be common language and measurements in the development field, to allow for comparison of apples-to-apples to most accurately compare project effectiveness.

4) Implementation Evaluations 

This should answer the question: “Was your implementation of that project the best it could be?”.

Overall, the article proposes a change of mindset and culture of ICT4D to be more aware of project failures. An example of a website that does this is called FAILFARE. This website reports on the failures of ICT4D projects. They try to “take a close look at what didn’t work and why the projects failed amidst the ICT4D hype we all are subjected to (and sometimes contributors to). We believe that only if we understand what DOESN’T WORK in this field and stop pushing our failures under the rug, can we collectively learn and get better, more effective, and have greater impact as we go forward.” The hope is that by looking at why projects fail, new data and information can be gathered to, in the future, create and implement better and more successful development projects.