Tag Archives: ICT policy

Kenya ICT4D Resources

1. National Information and Communication Policy,published by the Ministry of Communications in 2006 National Information and Communications Technology (ICT) Policy by the Ministry of Information and Communications (2006) 

2. http://www.information.go.ke

3. The case study I examined was that of a project called eLimu, who delivered tablets and educational software to schools in Kenya in 2012. http://e-limu.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=27&Itemid=51

4. External Resources



Internal Resources-


5.  It was relatively easy to find quantitative data on Kenya’s ICT usage, because there is a lot of statistical data available, however this does not give an extremely accurate picture of what the average Kenyan’s ICT usage looks like. More reports and case studies would be helpful, although the data available is a good start.

Honduras ICT4D Resources

  1. The Honduran National ICT Policy is a PDF file that I cannot attach here. It is the first result when Googleing “Honduras National ICT Plan.” The file is in both English and Spanish and was published by a coalition of Korean governmental agencies and universities on behalf of the Honduran government in 2012.
  2. The only official governmental mention of ICT that I could find was a presentation by the office of the vice president titled “ICT & e-Government in Honduras.” The entire presentation is in Spanish.
  3. Girls in ICT Day– An event hosted by La Comisión Nacional de Telecomunicaciones- CONATEL in coordination with the ITU Area Office for Central America, Mexico, Dominican Republic and Cuba. The most recent event took place on April 26, 2012.
  4. A 2010 ITU report briefly mentioned Honduras but mostly provided background information.
  5. It was quite difficult to gather information on the ICT sector of Honduras. The government posted virtually nothing online and outside sources, such as the ITU report listed above, did not provide much information about the situation in Honduras.

ICT Production in Zambia

ICT usage in Zambia has increased dramatically over the past few years. Amongst other indicators, the nation has experience a massive increase in mobile phone subscriptions, from less that 500,000 in 2003 to more than 3 million in 2008 – nearly one cellphone subscription for every two adult citizens. However, the nation has lacked any meaningful increase in ICT production. The Zambian economy is principally involved in primary sector activities – exporting a large amount of copper and agricultural products. While high-tech exports make-up 24.8% of all manufactured exports, ranking them 19th worldwide, the actual amount of exports comes to $221 million. When you take into account that copper mining is responsible for 60% of total exports and accounts for $5.6 billion, it is clear that the high percentage of high-tech exports is purely due to the lack of size of the Zambian economy overall.

Zambia has a fairly developed national ICT policy, dating back to 2001. Current policy is more concerned with increasing ICT usage, rather than promoting ICT production. Of the 13 pillars that make up Zambian ICT policy, only 1 is concerned with developing a local ICT industry. Hypothetically, it might make sense for the Zambian economy to focus more on promoting ICT production. Due to their reliance on copper, the entire economy of the country could collapse were global copper demand or prices to fluctuate. By diversifying their economy and making a concerted effort to increase ICT production, Zambia would be better protected from shifts in global demand for copper.

One could argue that it is important for the nation to be able to stand before it walks – i.e. Zambia should focus on ensuring that improvements to ICT infrastructure are made and that the prices of ICT equipment are reduced before focusing on improving the production capabilities of the country. However, future production of ICTs might be an interesting means for spurring employment opportunities and economic growth and stability throughout Zambia.

Thailand ICT Policy: A Country on the Rise

Thailand’s Information Communication Technology policy has three key components which it hopes to achieve within the next ten years. These components are 1.) Building knowledge-based on human capital, 2.) Promoting innovation in economic and social systems, 3.) Strengthening information infrastructure and industry. Thailand hopes to become a knowledge based society, where the use of ICTs helps boast the economy and is accessible to all of its citizens.

According to the World Bank, the research and development expenditure consists of only 2.21% of Thailand’s overall GDP and high technology exports were only 21% of all manufactured exports. There was no information regarding the technicians in R & D (World Bank). These numbers make it clear that ICT production has very little impact in the economic landscape of Thailand. Thailand is a country on the rise, one that is trying to become more developed, more technologically advanced and make more efficient use of ICTs to help its economy and the day-to-day life of its citizens.  Although Thailand has a long way to go until ICTs are being used successfully, to their full potential and when they will truly have an affect on the countries economy, Thailand is on the right track. Hopefully we will continue to see these numbers rise and that Thailand will continue on this track. Furthermore,  we hope to see ICTs benefit the country tremendously in the near future and that they successfully reach their goal of becoming knowledge based society.

For Thailand’s Full ICT policy click here.

For more information about Thailand from the World Bank click here

Telecommunications in the Senegalese Economy

Senegal is a leader in development among West African nations.  With an expanding ICT framework, the Senegalese economy is more globalized and connected with trade partners than ever before.

Senegal has placed great emphasis on expanding the telecommunications sector, as a means of both economic growth and self-empowerment. In 1998, mobile services were liberalized in Senegal and quality of life was impacted almost immediately. The Telecommunications Regulatory Agency reported in 2003 that advancements in telecommunications had contributed to unprecedented mobile subscriptions and the creation of over 20,000 new jobs (IST 90). In 2005, development leaders met to formulate a standardized national telecommunications policy, which continues upon early successes while addressing concerns in regulation and job creation:

  • Triple the number of telephone subscribers from 1 million (2003) to 3 million.
  • Increase the sector’s contribution to GDP.
  • Dramatically improve rural service by connecting 9 500 villages, with fixed and mobile networks covering all villages nationwide by 2010.
  • Democratize the Internet, consider it as part of universal service (phone + internet).

These objectives highlight the importance of telecommunications to policymakers in Senegal. The decentralization of network coverage seems to be a positive initiative, for it would encourage healthy competition in the market for telecommunication, possibly decreasing operating costs more than ever before.

The Result:

Within the context of the economic expansion, the role of ICTs is somewhat unclear.

According to World Bank reports, the ICT goods accounted for a mere 1% of total exports in 2011. When compared to the figures cited for the years 2007, 2008 and 2009 (4%, 5%, and 2% respectively), it is apparent that the emphasis on manufacturing ICT goods for export has lessened. Three possible explanations are:

  • Most ICT products manufactured in Senegal are consumed domestically.
  • Senegal can no longer produce at a quality or rate competitive in the ICT market.
  • Economic priorities have shifted.

Meanwhile, ICTs as a percentage of imports were cited at 3%, which has remained at this figure for the previous five years.

Interestingly enough, ICT service exports constituted 34% of total service exports in 2010-2011. In other words, of services offshore or globalized during the past year, over one-third of them were classified as ICT services. Senegal clearly depends upon these exported ICT services to remain integrated in the market, and perhaps these services are cheaper in and from Senegal than more developed countries.

While these statistics are not much to work with, there are some possible interpretations as to what they mean for ICTs in the larger, macro picture of the Senegalese economy. The small amount of ICT goods as a percentage of total good exports seems to indicate that Senegal is not a major ICT manufacturer. Importation of these products happens in greater proportion than their exportation. Rather, Senegal’s comparative advantage probably lies in ICT service exports, which can be offered at a lower price in developing nations. ICTs definitely matter for Senegalese development, as evidenced in the national policy measures. However, it would appear that the necessary technology is either imported, improvised from pre-existing technology, or produced and consumed domestically.

Read about the current telecommunications and ICT systems in Senegal and how they rank against neighboring nations or access the World Bank country report on Senegal.

Panama National ICT Resources

Studying Panama as your focus country will be difficult as many of the government resources and ICT policy documents are in Spanish. The National Authority for Government Innovation (AIG) is the public entity in charge of creating, implementing, and monitoring the success of Panama’s ICT policy. Make sure to use AIG’s resources before researching external documents. Please, keep in mind that every administration has created a new ICT policy, thus it is important to make sure the resources you use refer to the most recent policy. There is a lot of information available, so make sure to focus on the specific information you need. Unfortunately, there is a low of level of continuity among government initiatives when the ruling party changes. I expect the upcoming administration (starting in June 2014) to create a new policy.

National ICT Policy:

Agenda Digital Estratégica: Panamá 2012-2014

Language: Spanish

Creator: National Authority for Government Innovation (AIG) and UNDP

Publisher: AIG

Creation Year: 2010

Updates: N/A


Government Resources:

National Authority for Government Innovation (AIG)

National Secretariat for Science and Technology

Ministry of Economics and Finance

Ministry of Social Development

Ministry of Commerce and Industry

Controller’s Office

The National Statistical Institute


Non-Government Resources:

Country Profile: Panama – 2012 ECLAC

Language: English

Perfil Economico de Panama – 2012 ECLAC

Language: Spanish

The Economic Commission for Latin America (ECLAC)

Language: Spanish

National ICT Chamber

Language: Spanish

Philippines ICT Resources

It was relatively easy to find the Philippines’ National ICT policy but additional resources were not as easy to find. It didn’t seem like there were too many other resources available related to ICT in the Philippines.

National ICT Policy:

The Philippine Digital Strategy

  • Written by the Commission of  Information and Communications Technology in collaboration with the government, the private sector and civil society stakeholders.
  • A roadmap for 2011-2016
  • Written in 2011 as an update to a previous ICT policy that was created by the National Information Technology Council in October 1997.
  • Language: English

Governmental Resources:

Information and Communications Technology Office

  • Provides information about all of the Philippines’ ICT projects/ information
  • Last updated 2012
  • Run by the Department of Science and Technology
  • Language: English

Non-Governmental Resources:

Freedom on the Net – Philippines

  • Updated in 2012
  • Part of Freedom House
  • Discusses obstacles to access, limits on content and violations of user rights
  • Language: English

ICT in Education

  • Created by UNESCO Bangkok
  • Updated in 2013
  •  Links to education and projects about ICTs and education in the Philippines
  • Language: English