Tag Archives: Tanzania

Health Management Systems Rolled Out in Tanzania

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In preparation for my health sector presentation next week, I decided to examine how ICTs can be used to improve health in a developing country. But since I have already done a blog post on the Cariopad in Cameroon, a front office technology, I will focus on the back office application of ICTs to improve health system management in Tanzania. “Back office applications,” says Richard Heeks, “help better planning, decision-making, and management” (Heeks ICT Manifesto 2005). After writing my national ICT policy analysis, I learned that healthcare affordability for the patient alone doesn’t improve the overall level of health of a country. The affordability and efficiency of health systems for doctors and hospitals to treat more people at higher quality improves the overall development of the health sector in the long term. For this reason, I will focus on health management information systems in Tanzania.

There have been many ICT health-focused initiatives in Tanzania since the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare (MoHSW) proposed a strengthening of the country’s health information systems (HMIS) in 2000. Two such initiatives, Telemedicine, and eRCH4BC, are examples of how technology can be used to increase communication between doctors and community health workers to treat patients with severe cases who reside in places far from specialists or high quality health care.

Telemedicine in Tanzania enables doctors in remote areas to consult specialized doctors with healthcare expertise and resources in the cities for better diagnoses. “People who can afford it come to cities for their health care in huge numbers and at enormous cost. Telemedicine is beneficial for patients, because they can get specialist consultations and treatment in their own hospital.” Doctors are able to exchange medical data, still images, x-rays, live video and audio over the Internet to a panel of expert doctors in cities. Within a short period of time, they come up with the results and tell the rural doctors what to do. Dr. John Materu of Kibosho Hospital says, “Referral is easier when you can tell the patient the advice that you have got from a specialist-doctor on the right treatment” (IICD video). In terms of efficiency and cost-effectiveness, Telemedicine has the power to transform health development by cutting costs for patients and extending the knowledge of specialists. It seems to be financially sustainable since the Internet-based software is free and training manuals are easily adopted online or through visits from Telemed training institutions. My concerns about the project are the privacy and safety of patients’ information since it is discussed online by a panel of doctors. Also, if the Internet is down for an extended period while someone is in critical condition, there should be a back-up method of communication that doesn’t rely on Internet. Since the project has been able to push funding past their two-year pilot into Phase 2, hospitals are asked to provide funding from their own resources, which also could be a hindrance. Overall though, I am optimistic that Telemedicine is the key to improving HMIS and patient health care in remote areas.

Since I provided a comprehensive review of Telemedicine, I will go into less detail with the second health-focused ICT initiative. “eRCH for better care” was a joint pilot project between Spider and ITIDO from 2011 from 2012 with the objective of improving reproductive and child healthcare systems through ICT intervention in the Rufiji district of Tanzania. Amongst other RCH challenges, e-RCH4B aimed to solve the lack of antenatal check ups and lack of support for community health care workers (CHWs) in rural areas. To solve the former, an electronic record keeping system with both mother and child’s health data made check-ups easier and enabled data transfer data between facilities upon referrals. For the latter, eRCH4BC provided CHWs in with “Tele-maternal,” like to telemedicine but only for mothers, to identify danger signs of women and children “so CHWs can advise them to go to nearby health facilities for more professional care.” It is  significant that civil society recognized the lack of formal education that CHWs have to provide new and expecting mothers accurate diagnoses. I hope the Tanzanian government will catch on too. Although Spider has not yet released the project’s evaluation, I am glad to see initiatives addressing fatalities that could be prevented with ICTs.


Sometimes ICT Projects Fail

It is hard to admit when something doesn’t quite go as planned, especially when money and time are invested. ICT projects, for example, only succeed about 30 percent of the time. However, it is important to learn from mistakes and help the rest of the ICT4D community avoid the same errors. This is why it is important to say that you failed and discuss what went wrong. In December of 2012, Ben Taylor from Daraja gave a talk about lessons learned from an ICT project that had failed.

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In 2010, Ben and his colleagues set up a program in Tanzania that rallied citizens to put pressure on local authorities to fix broken water pumps by using mobile phones.  Local communities were asked to use SMS messages to report the state of the water supply to the authorities. They also informed local radio stations to observe any action that the water authorities were going to take in response to the text messages. This program received a lot of national attention before it was launched; however, after the launch only 53 text messages were received. This disappointed Ben and his colleagues, who were assuming that more than 3,000 text messages would be received.  When they looked into the reasons for the program’s failure they came up with 3 major problems. The first was for political reasons; since the relationship between the local communities and authorities was sensitive, the citizens did not feel comfortable reporting on their government. The second reason was gender-specific, as women and children were often the ones who were collecting the water and they did not have access to mobile phones. The third reason was that there was limited mobile network coverage and electricity in the villages. Ben and his colleagues shared the reasons for failure on the web and in leaflets in order to prevent others from making the same mistakes.

The reasons for failure in Ben’s project correlated well with the documentary that we watched in class.  For example, I do not think that sufficient research was done on the area where the project was going to be launched. The reasons for failure -politics, gender, and access- would have been noticed if time was spent researching the area. In development projects, it is common for people from the developed world to go into a country and decide what the country needs and how to do it without consulting anyone from the area. This is why many development projects fail. Without truly understanding a community, it is impossible to know what is best for them. I believe that the only way to implement a sustainable development project is to live on the ground and make yourself a part of the community. That way, you will be able to see and hear what would actually make a difference in their lives.


Kenya Launches National Cyber Security Strategy and Master Plan

The arrival of extensive undersea fibre optic cables in mid-2009 have spurred a major ICT revolution in East Africa with Kenya in the lead and Tanzania following close behind. The transition to broadband has spurred rapid growth in the number of Internet users and increased access for many to cheap Smartphones. Kenya has also been able to achieve faster broadband connection than their counterpart in South Africa. IBM even chose Nairobi for its first African Research Lab.

So, what does all this rapid progress mean for exposure to cyber attacks? More is at stake.

Cyber attacks could be devastating to a developing country on the path to a better future like Kenya. With the ever-increasing reliance upon and use of ICTs to enable more development, comes greater risk. Security problems like the defacement of government websites offering important services as well as attacks on the Banking sector, plus many others can be devastating in developing countries. “The use of ICT in many industries means that national infrastructure such as water companies, power infrastructure, banking and payments are exposed to ICT threats.” (Dennis Mbuvi, CIO/East Africa)  For these reasons, Kenya just recently launched a National Cyber Security Strategy and Master Plan in February of this year:

  • In a nutshell, the Strategy will enable the government, private sector and Chief Security Officer to “[come] up with a national cyber security assets inventory and [establish] approved cyber security vendors.” (Mbuvi)
  • A data protection bill is also in the draft
  • a consultant behind the plan, Tyrus Kamau, says “that its implementation will see better cyber security in the country, which will in turn lead to confidence in electronic transactions, resulting to economic growth. The move will also ensure confidence as the government rolls out various eGovernment services.” (Mbuvi)

Since I wrote my paper on the role of eGovernment in Tanzania, especially with regards to its role in establishing trust among citizens, I see huge potential in the implementation of a policy like this, especially in the rapidly developing ICT sectors in East Africa. I also think it’s interesting how what Kamau said is clearly where the benefits of employing an early plan for cyber security can be seen in developing versus developed countries.  In countries like Kenya and Tanzania there is the need to establish  trust and confidence from consumers who have been living for so long without these services, whereas in more developed countries like the U.S., the biggest threats are less of a concern to the public who is generally unaware so far of their [cyber attacks’] potential consequences. In my opinion it speaks volumes on the need for both developed and developing countries to establish comprehensive plans because regardless of their development levels, cyber threats/attacks can be detrimental to both of their economies, peoples’ livelihoods and overall safety.


Health Education through Entertaining Radio Programs

In this week’s reading, “Why Radio Matters,” Dr. Mary Myers highlights a list of reasons and examples why radio is “the most widespread mass-medium for the developing world.” One of these reasons was that radio has the potential to educate and entertain its listeners. Myers then went on to fuse these two functions into one example- that of the Tanzanian radio soap opera titled “Pilika Pilika,” which educates its listeners on myriad health issues through entertaining plot lines. Earlier today, when writing our assigned analysis and discussion questions based on the readings, I posed the question, “Do you believe that this is actually effective in educating people on important health measures?” I then went on to do a little research of my own, which is how I discovered “Shuga-Love, Sex, Money”–a 12-episode radio drama that tells the stories of a group of four young fictional characters aged 15-24, their choices, dreams, friendships, challenges, and triumphs in a world where HIV and AIDS are an ever-present threat.

Launched in June of 2012, Shuga is a joint initiative of MTV, UNICEF, and the HIV Free Generation (HFG) Partnership. Not only is the series produced in French, English, and Swahili, but it is also distributed at no cost to a wide range of broadcasters. Some of the themes and topics covered through the plot of the series are: HIV counseling and testing, condom use in stable relationships, positive prevention, gender inequality and sexual violence, transactional sex, alcohol abuse, and the role of multiple concurrent partnerships in driving the HIV epidemic. Another unique aspect of the Shuga series that has undoubtedly lent it more success is that it was written and produced by 30 young people from Cameroon, DR Congo, Kenya, Tanzania, Lesotho and South Africa. These young Africans from diverse backgrounds all came together for training in a special workshop hosted by Question Media Group with support from MTV and UNICEF in order to create the drama that informs people just like them.

Now to my question as to whether or not this means of delivering vital health advice through entertainment radio is actually successful in improving health outcomes. According to research conducted by Johns Hopkins University/Centre for Communications Programs in Kenya following the airing of Shuga, the data reported increased intentions for HIV testing coupled with decreased intentions for multiple sex partners; improved attitudes towards people living with HIV and AIDS, and increased usage of accessible health and social services among youth who had watched the series. Being a radio DJ myself at the campus station, WTUL, I know what it is like to read obligatory Public Service Announcements each week. The information is terribly mundane, and most of the time, I am certain my listeners tune out during these mandated announcements. Now having learned about these examples of innovative use of airtime to educate the public, I will question these PSAs even more.  Unfortunately, I do not think this coupling of education and entertainment, particularly through radio, would be very successful in the U.S. But programs like “Pilika Pilika” and “Shuga- Love, Sex, Money” show promise for the future of education and empowerment through radio in the developing world.


Tertiary Education for Development

When discussing the use of ICTs in education development, it seems like the majority of efforts are centered around youth education. However, as brought up in this weeks lecture, what happens to those who are left out of the ‘youth’ bubble? Although starting a movement to target children’s education early on is crucial to ensure development, how far can a country develop if they lack the ability to provide higher education? It seems that this issue was not only a concern for my classmates, but also for New York Times columnist Thomas Friedman. In early January, Friedman wrote on the need for higher education, and found a solution with the program of free massive open online courses (MOOC).

MOOCs are programs established by notable colleges such as Stanford, Harvard, Princeton, and MIT, which provide free online education for anyone. Although this education does not give you college credit or an established degree, it does provide many with the skills and capacity building programs needed to lift them out of poverty.

Coursera, a market leader amongst the MOOC programs recently partnered with the World Bank’s New Economy Skills for Africa Program (NESAP) and the Tanzanian STHEP Project to pilot the Youth Employment Accelerator Program Initiative (YEAPI). This project aims to help fill the highly demanded IT jobs in Tanzania through the skills learned by the MOOC programs. The skills acquired by these MOOC programs can prove to be incredibly beneficiary to the development of Tanzania, especially in terms of reducing youth unemployment rates and encouraging higher education.

However, after reading many cases where educational development has failed, especially the project of One Laptop Per Child, I feel that this program is struggling to address some of the key issues at hand. While these online courses can be incredibly helpful for the continuance of education in rural communities, they fail to acknowledge certain infrastructural problems that these populations might face. This program assumes that individuals will have access to computers and that these computers will have adequate access to the internet. Furthermore, this program assumes that individuals will want to partake in such education, even though it lacks initial incentives. While I completely understand and support this program’s initiatives, I feel like the pilot program will show that there are much greater problems at hand.


United Republic of Tanzania National ICT Resources

1. National ICT Policy/Plan/Strategy:

NATIONAL INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGIES POLICY

Created: March 2003 (part of “The Tanzania Development Vision 2025”)

Created By: The Ministry of Communications and Transport

Language: English

The Tanzania Development Vision 2025: This government website explains Tanzania’s overall vision for development in general, but it also states specifics about the ICT sector.

Tanzania ICT Sector Performance Review 2009/2010: This is a more recent, non-government document that reviews how Tanzania is doing in terms of their ICT sector for 2009/2010.

Authors: Mary Materu-Behitsa and Bitrina D. Diyamett

4. Helpful Notes:

The above documents hold very valuable information for your papers. The National information and communications technologies policy is the most important document, as it will provide you with all of the information you are responsible for in your first paper. It is long but very thorough. You will be able to sufficiently write the paper by using this document, but you must read the document in its entirety.


ICT Savvy Universities in East Africa

Within the education sector, ICTs are used to access information from many different mediums. This can be accessed from computers, laptops, mobile phones, e-readers, radio, etcetera. In East Africa, a recent list of universities has been announced, ranking the best “ICT Savvy” institutions in the region. Five Kenyan universities were among those top 100 establishments. Universities in Burundi, Uganda, Rwanda, and Tanzania were highly ranked as well.

The Top Universities:

Makerere University of Uganda

Strathmore

Busitema University of Uganda

School of Finance and Banking of Rwanda

African Virtual University of Kenya

Makerere University

University of Nairobi

Mount Kenya University

Kenyatta University

The various universities were measured based on “how universities have complied with ICT in terms of embracing technology for both students and lecturers.” Between April and October 2012, a survey was created in determining which higher education institutions made the cut regarding ICT use in teaching and enhancing education. Face-to-face questionnaires were conducted in determining these factors. The universities that best met the practices of management, development, and sustenance of university education worldwide made the list.

What is interesting to note is that these universities in East Africa are keeping up with international universities in embracing ICT facilities. Kenya, in particular, has heavily invested in ICT compared to other African universities. Hopefully this spreads to include many more universities in time to come. This is exciting news within the education sector for ICTs.


BRIDGEit in Tanzania

Bridgeit is an ICT initiative (specifically mEducation), which aims to, increase the quality of education specifically mathematics, science, and life skills in primary school though the use of mobile phones and television. Teachers are provided with access to a digital catalogue of short educational videos. They are also provided with a Nokia mobile phone, which they use to download these videos (via a server). The mobile phone is connected to a television in the classroom, so that the videos can be broadcasted for the class to view. Additionally, the videos come with interactive lesson plans for the teachers to follow, which address key concepts/ideas that the video introduces (erumi). Some of the schools were focused on just mathematics and science, while others were focused on mathematics, science, and life skills.

What is interesting to note about this project is that the education aspect of it does not focus on the mobile phone like those in the past; the mobile phone is just the medium in which the educational video is downloaded through. The main aspect of technology here is the television where the students watch the educational video.

Another interesting part of this program is that its implementers worked in collaboration with the Tanzanian government, as well as community organizations. By involving respected community members in the research process of the initiative, this project adhered to the human centered design toolkit’s phase “hear.” Additionally, because of government involvement this is a more dynamic approach to the legitimate implementation and sustainability ICT’s in Tanzania’s education sector, which was a main goal of their ICT policy.

An Evaluation was done for the first year. Overall, test scores of students in BridgeIT and BridgeIT + Life Skills in both math and science increased. Some other results that came back from the attitude questionnaires indicated that teachers received a lot of support from various outlets. Although the above results came back positive, there also were negative results: the teachers had decreased satisfaction with their jobs, and the students initially thought the video content was boring. But when students became more accustomed to the video learning, they found that the videos increased their understanding of math and science (Enge &Kjell).

Although I believe a proper evaluation was conducted, it did not mention anything about infrastructure in terms of electricity with this program (main problem in Tanzania), which was a main component of it. Additionally, it did not mention anything about what happened when the mobile phones were broken, or if there was a problem with theft.


ICT4D Professional Profile: Noble Kelly

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“You don’t need our permission to make a difference. It’s up to you!” -EBB

Noble Kelly is a thought leader in the ICT4D sector of education who has done extensive work in Canada and Africa.  Kelly entered the education field in 1991 as a high school teacher and later earned a post-baccalaureate degree in Education Technology.  Over time, he has become increasingly involved in advocacy, policy development and capacity-building, which is reflected in his non-profit NGO called Education Beyond Borders (EBB).

EBB, founded in 2007, sets out to close the achievement gap “…through teacher professional development and community education,” focusing on “…self-reliance, health, and capacity.”  According to EBB, “If the key to economic development and our young people’s future is education, then teachers should have resources, tools, and access to the Internet, as well as each other.”  Well aware that “Information and communication technologies are drivers of globalization and hold enormous potential for access to free content and the training of in-demand skills, but their rapid development runs the risk of further widening the digital divide as developing regions struggle to get connected,” Kelly ensures that his organization strives to avoid the latter situation.  Kelly’s appreciation for ICTs is also evidenced by his praise of the use of mobile technologies “…to support the work that we are doing in the field,” as “Isolation can be a huge detriment, or a huge obstacle, to much of our work.”

Though Kelly is busy with EBB, he has also been a teacher trainer and mentor through the Teaching and Learning in an Information Technological Environment Post Baccalaureate Program at Simon Fraser University.  Additionally, as a “….member of the Peace and Global Education action group for the British Columbia Teachers’ Federation…” he has been active in policy development, workshop leadership and advocacy for universal safe and inclusive schools.  Internationally, Kelly has worked on capacity-building and development initiatives in South Africa, as well as on “…education reform, teacher professional development and appropriate use and integration of ICT to engage learners within a cultural/local context,” in Ethiopia, Guyana, Tanzania, and Kenya.

To learn more about Kelly, follow him!

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eLearning in Tanzania

Bridgeit is an eLearning project funded by USAID which was implemented in 2007 in Tanzania. It underwent a 2-year piloting period with a 15-month extension and ended in late December of 2010. The purpose of the program was to implement ICT by means of mobile phone usage to improve the classroom teaching and learning experience. Bridgeit allowed Tanzanian teachers to download videos on various relevant subjects, such as math, science and HIV/AIDS, to cell phones. The mobile phones were connected to a television set which projected the videos for the class to see. The project was highly successful and well-supported by the community. It enabled the students taught in that manner to gain a better understanding of the material by being able to visualize it instead of simply listening to a theoretical explanation. The project’s benefits were that it was designed to be student-centered learning; it supported the teachers to enhance the learning experience; it employed a good teaching strategy for large class sizes (as those in Tanzania); and the visual aspect inspired greater interest and motivation on behalf of the students. As of April of this year, the project has helped 80,000 children and 3,000 teachers. In my opinion, Bridgeit‘s greatest strength is the infrastructure it created for itself. The project partnered with Tanzania’s Ministry of Education, the Nokia Corporation, the Nokia Institute for Technology, the Pearson Foundation, and Vodacom Tanzania. That’s an incredible setup. With so many partners, each playing a crucial role in the success or failure of the project and all working towards a common goal, Bridgeit was fully supported simply because it was able to draw on all the resources it needed from its partners.

Click here to learn more about Bridgeit in Tanzania.